List of Computer Generation & How they are Made..?

computer generation

Computer Generation..! How they Made..?

first generation

The first generation period was 1940-1956

In the first generation of computers, vacuum tubes were used to control and transmit electronic signals, but a computer full of computers was first created by them.

These used to create larger and more heat in the shape of tubes and they were likely to have broken-up and more malfunction and the ability to calculate it was also very low and the first generation computers used to occupy more space.

The batch processing operating system was mainly used in this generation. In this generation, the perforated card, paper tape, magnetic tape input, and output device were used.

The machine code and electricity used were wired board languages.

The main features of the first Computer Generation are as follows:

Vacuum tube technology

machine language

very expensive

sheer size

Requirement of AC

Power consumption a lot

There were some computers of this generation:






Second generation

Second generation period was 1956-1963

In the second generation, the transistor was invented. During this time the transistors were used simultaneously in computers, which were more efficient and cheap than valves. Those used to replace vacuum tubes for computer construction. The size of the transistor is much smaller than vacuum tubes.

Thereby, the computer is small and its ability to calculate more and faster. Compared to the first generation, they were able to measure smaller and less heat and calculate more efficiency and faster speed.

Like this Fortran, high-level programming language, Cobol, was used in this generation.

The main features of the Second Computer Generation are as follows:

| transistor usage

| Small size compared to first-generation computers

| Generate less heat than first-generation computers

| Low power consumption compared to first-generation computers

| faster than first-generation computers

| very expensive

| Assembly language

There were some computers of this generation:

IBM 1620

IBM 7094

CDC 1604

CDC 3600

Univec 1108

Third generation

The third generation was 1964-1971

Computers of this period could be used simultaneously. It became an important basis for the third generation of synchronized chip development; technological efforts were made to further reduce the size of the computer, resulting in the creation of an integrated circuit on the silicon chip, which was used in computers.

As a result, it was possible to produce the smallest size of the computer so far! Their speed was from microseconds to nanoseconds, which was possible through small-scale integrated circuits.

Fortran II used for high-level language (IV, Cobol, Pascal PL / 1, Basic, ALGOL-68 etc.) used during this generation.

The main features of the Third Computer Generation are as follows:

| used IC

| more reliable

| Small size

| Generate less heat

| fast

| Low maintenance

| still expensive

| need for AC

| Reduced power consumption

| High-level language support

There were some computers of this generation:

IBM-360 series

Honeywell-6000 series

PDP (Personal Data Processor)



Fourth generation

The fourth generation period was 1971-1985

The microprocessor was used in the fourth generation computers! VSLI With the receipt of a single chip, thousands of transistors could be installed. In the fourth generation computers, around 5000 transistors and other circuit elements on a single chip and large scale integrated VLSI circuits were used.

The fourth generation computers were more powerful, compact, reliable and cheap. As a result, the personal computer (PC) revolution was born.

In this generation, real-time network distributed operating system was used.

All high-level languages such as etc have been used in this generation.

The main features of the fourth Computer Generation are as follows:


| Use of VLSI technology

| very cheap

| Portable and reliable

| PC access

| Very small size

| pipeline processing

| Introduced the concept of Internet

| Too much development in the field of network

| Computer easily available

There were some computers of this generation:

Star 1000


Cray-1 (Super Computer)

Cray X (Super Computer)

Fifth generation

In this fifth stage of development, artificial intelligence has been invested in computers! Such computers have not been fully developed! We can see such computers in robots and various types of sound programs! It will be more capable than humans.

The fifth generation includes:


neural network

Development of specialist systems to make decisions in real-life situations.

Natural language understanding and generation.

The main features of the Fifth Computer Generation are as follows:


| VLSI technology

| The development of artificial intelligence

| Development of natural language resources

| Advance in parallel processing

| Superconductor’s advancement in technology

| More user-friendly interface with multimedia features

| Availability of very powerful and compact computers at affordable rates

Some computer types of this generation are:






Generation in computer terminology is a computer / a change in the field of technology being used. Initially, the generation period was used to distinguish between different hardware technologies. But nowadays, hardware and software are both used to build an entire computer system together with generation.

Leave a Reply